Manila (English: /məˈnɪlə/; Tagalog: Maynila, [majˈnilaʔ]) is the capital city and the second largest city of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities (along with the municipality of Pateros) that comprise the National Capital Region called Metro Manila.
The City of Manila is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is bordered by the cities of Navotas and Caloocan to the north; Quezon City to the northeast; San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east; Makati to the southeast, and Pasay to the south.
Manila has a total population of 1,652,171 according to the 2010 census and is the second most populous city in the Philippines, behind Quezon City. The populace inhabit an area of only 38.55 square kilometers, making Manila the most densely populated city in the world.
The city is divided into six legislative districts and consists of sixteen areas: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo. Bustling commerce and some of the most historically and culturally significant iconic landmarks in the country, as well as the seat of the executive and judicial branches of the government are found in the city. Manila is also home to many scientific and educational institutions, numerous sport facilities, and other culturally and historically significant venues.
Listed as a global city, Manila has its strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport making it the historical, cultural, political, economic and educational center of the Philippines.
The earliest written account of the city is the 10th-century Laguna Copperplate Inscription which describes a context of an Indianised kingdom maintaining diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Medang. The city was invaded by Brunei’s Sultan Bolkiah and was already Islamized by the 15th century when the Spanish Conquistadors first arrived. Manila eventually became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade route linking Latin America and Asia. The city would eventually be given the moniker of the “Pearl of the Orient”, as a result of its central location in the vital Pacific sea trade routes. Several Chinese insurrections, local revolts, a British Occupation and a Sepoy mutiny also occurred shortly thereafter. Manila also saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution which was followed by the arrival of the Americans who made contributions to the city’s urban planning and development only to have most of those improvements lost in the devastation of World War II. Since then the city has been rebuilt.
Manila’s economy is diverse and multifaceted. With its excellent protected harbor, Manila serves as the Chief Seaport of the Country. Diverse manufacturers produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. Manila is also a major publishing center in the Philippines.
Binondo, has begun to be revitalized along with Divisoria, several high-rise condominiums and offices are rising in the area. The plan to make the Chinatown area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) hub continues to progress, it is being pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices, these buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices. Recently, a 20-hectare land property in the Port Area was planned by the city government to become Manila’s financial center. A blueprint was already created for the development of the area while the city government waits for President Aquino to authorize the use of the idle land.
Tourism in Manila attracts over 1 million tourists each year. Major destinations include the walled city of Intramuros, museums such as the National Museum of the Philippines, and other tourist destinations including Ermita, Malate, Santa Cruz, the Manila Zoo, the City Chinatown and events such as the Feast of Black Nazarene, free performances in Rizal Park and events within the Cultural Center of the Philippines. Rizal Park is a major tourist attraction and one of the most recognizable icons of the Philippines. Ermita and Malate, aside from being known for its nightlife, are well-known shopping destination for the upper class while Divisoria was the shopping destination for local residents.
The city’s cash position in 2011 stated that Manila has ₱1.6 billion cash-at-hand while its gross operating expenses was ₱2.97 billion. The financial expenses of the city was P45 million, and has a liability of 3.3 billion. Manila has the highest budget allocation to health and was one of the cities with the highest tax revenue. Manila was also one of the cities with the highest internal revenue.
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